Sunday, May 24, 2020

Piaget s Theory Of Experiential Learning - 1481 Words

In this childhood developmental study, a comparative analysis of the theories of Lee Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Howard Gardner will be evaluated through the lens of experiential learning. Through Vygotsky’s realization of the childhood learning through â€Å"hands-on† experience (experiential learning), the cultural and socioeconomic factors defines the progress a child makes in the individual progression towards growth in the educational system. Piaget beheld similar views on experiential learning in the context of the family unit as an extension of social and educational progress through adaptation and guidance. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (TMI) also expands upon Vygotsky and Piaget’s premise of experiential learning by understanding the different forms of adaptation in the differing modes of thinking (spatial, visual, verbal, etc.) that educators can utilize in teaching the child. In essence, a comparative analysis of the childhood devel opmental theories of Vygotsky, Piaget, and Gardner define similar methods of experiential learning in the context of childhood development. Vygotsky’s childhood development theory involves the process of â€Å"hands-on† learning as part of an experiential process in a cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic perception of learning and education. During the early stages of child’s life, the learning process involves the â€Å"mentoring† of children through ethnic, cultural, socioeconomic, and community based-learning (ala. the school system)Show MoreRelatedThe Principal Goals Of Education1226 Words   |  5 Pagesgenerations have done† – Jean Piaget (From remarks at a conference on cognitive development at Cornell University, 1964), and so that is still true of learning in my workplace today. But how does the learning being offered create these men you may ask, and what place does Kolb’s experiential learning cycle take in it all? As I work in a tough railway ‘safety critical’ role the learning can be broken down into several phases each with its own goals. Two phases of learning are more formal than most andRead MoreHow Can Teachers Use Theories and Findings from Developmental Psychology to Inform Classroom Practise.2109 Words   |  9 PagesHow can teachers use theories and findings from developmental psychology to inform classroom practise. Teachers can use theories and findings from developmental psychology to improve the quality of learning that takes place within the classroom by changing the learning methods and social conditions that typify an educational classroom. This essay will attempt to show that although there are many psychological ideas that have theorised and researched different ways to educate; the most successfulRead MorePiaget Vs Vygotsky : Piaget And Vygotsky1314 Words   |  6 PagesTwo Famous Educators: Piaget vs. Vygotsky Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are often considered the most influential cognitive development and learning psychologists of the 20th century. Their research efforts have inspired numerous interpretations and spawned new outlets of approaching developmental psychology. The following paragraphs will analyze the theories of Piaget of Vygotsky and discuss how their research can be used to advance the use of cognitive development in learning, both traditional andRead MoreEarly childhood educators Essay example781 Words   |  4 Pagesinfluential in both Europe and America in the mid to late 1700s. Rousseau emphasized out of the home schooling and viewed children as innately good. Rousseau reduced the importance of learning by reading and emphasized learning by experience. An example of his work is seen today as children learn through play. Pestalozzi   Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi published a book in 1801 that helped influence the development of seeing his theories put into action. The â€Å"Pestalozzi method† was put into practiceRead MoreReflective Reflection Of Reflective Practice1896 Words   |  8 PagesThe general trend for scholars was to either explain or expound on theories of the previous scholars but Professor of nursing Gary Rolfe (2001) designed a reflective model to simplify the learning cycle. This version of the reflective cycle was comprised of three questions that ask the reflective practitioner: What, So what, and Now what? (Rolfe 2001)The idea is that through these questions we gain a description of the situation ultimately leading to critic of the situation as well as the f knowledgeRead MoreTheories of Cognitive Development: an Insight to the Theories of Piaget, Information-Processing and Vygotsky1464 Words   |  6 PagesTheories of Cognitive Development: An insight to the theories of Piaget, Information-processing and Vygotsky How do we learn? How do we grow? Over the years, psychologists have studied to great lengths the processes that humans go through as they progress from infancy to adulthood. Several theories have emerged over time with three prominent ones. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky produced two important and distinct theories. Another important theory, the information-processing theory, presentsRead MoreLearning Style Assiginment Essay978 Words   |  4 PagesDevelopment  for  Success  in  Business   Assignment  1   500  words  in  which  I  analyse  my  own  learning  style                                                                                 Student  ID:  14030592   Name:  Kabir  Ali   Tutor:  Katy  Roberts      2   Table  of  Contents      1.  Introduction Page  3      2.  Learning  Style  Analysis Page  3      3.  Conclusion Page  5      4.  References Page  7      5.  Appendices Page  8      3   1.  Introduction      From  an  early  age  I  found  learning  hard  and  in  my  early  educational  years  I   noticed  I  would  stop  paying  attention  in  class  when  I  lost  interestRead MoreThe Foundation Phase Curriculum Completed1318 Words   |  6 PagesThe Foundation Phase Curriculum completed its roll out during the academic year 2011-2012. Making reference to the key messages from the ‘Framework for Children’s Learning for 3 to 7 year-olds in Wales’, what experiences should all children in the Foundation Phase be receiving? The Foundation Phase completed its roll-out during the academic year 2011-2012. However, the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) constantly observe children via documentation and therefore they adapt the curriculum to best suitRead MoreThe University Of The Atlantic Dorr Museum And The Woodlawn Gardens Museum Essay2221 Words   |  9 PagesI was originally planning on spending my time observing and participating in different museum locations, but with the two education classes I was taking, I also ended up learning a lot about different school settings as well. And what was most interesting was comparing them and seeing where the similarities were. I would have categorized them as schools and museums, but those would be false categories. I spent time at three different museums for my service hours, the Bangor Discovery Museum, theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film The World s Classroom 1727 Words   |  7 Pagessocially problematic, in regards to some methods when learning about other cultures, Claire practices very progressive teaching methods and concepts that our class has covered. Because of using these varied teaching methods, Claire is also creating a more indepth and engaged learning environment that appears to have a positive impact on her students. Two concepts that I will be introducing and comparing to Claire’s classroom are Self-directed Learning and The Four Aspects of Engagement. Both of these

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Origin and History of SRI Free Essay Example, 1750 words

The concept of socially responsible investment is not new. The roots of what has become known as socially responsible investing go back to ancient times. The Old Testament laid down many commands about how to invest ethically. Similarly, the Quran also spells clear instructions about ethical investment. There is a general agreement that current consciousness of ethical investment or socially responsible investment was developed with the Quaker and Methodist religious movements in the 19th Century. Later on, in 1928, Philip L. Carrot initiated Pioneer Fund the earliest SRI fund initiated in the United States. This fund is still operating(Social Funds, 2010). The first SRI fund in the United Kingdom was the Friends Provident Stewardship Fund which was started in 1984 (Ali and Gold, 2002)The political scenario of the 1960s helped in raising awareness around issues of social responsibility (Schueth, 2003). This decade marked a series of social and environmental movements which emphasiz ed civil rights and women s rights on one hand and on the other, these movements raised their voice against humans catastrophes in wars. Later on, the human rights movement broadened the scope of the SRI to the management and labor issues. We will write a custom essay sample on Origin and History of SRI or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Those investors, during the 1970s and 1980s, used both screening and shareholder advocacy (activism) to press for change in South Africa.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Answer Key Free Essays

Professor Mumford mumford@purdue. edu Econ 360 – Fall 2012 Problem Set 1 Answers True/False (30 points) 1. FALSE If (ai , bi ) : i = 1, 2, . We will write a custom essay sample on Answer Key or any similar topic only for you Order Now . . , n and (xi , yi ) : i = 1, 2,  ·  ·  · , n are sets of n pairs of numbers, then: n n n (ai xi + bi yi ) = i=1 i=1 ai x i + i=1 bi yi 2. FALSE If xi : i = 1, 2, . . . , n is a set of n numbers, then: n n n n n (xi ? x) = ? i=1 n i=1 2 x2 i ? 2? x i=1 xi + i=1 x = ? i=1 2 x2 ? n? 2 x i where x = ? 1 n i=1 xi 3. TRUE If xi : i = 1, 2, . . . , n is a set of n numbers and a is a constant, then: n n a xi = a i=1 n i=1 xi = a n x ? here x = ? 1 n i=1 xi 4. FALSE If X and Y are independent random variables then: E (Y |X) = E (Y ) 1 5. TRUE If {a1 , a2 , . . . , an } are constants and {X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn } are random variables then: n n E i=1 ai X i = i=1 ai E (Xi ) 6. FALSE For a random variable X, let  µ = E (X). The variance of X can be expressed as: V ar(X) = E X 2 ?  µ2 7. TRUE For random variables Y and X, the variance of Y conditional on X = x is given by: V ar(Y |X = x) = E Y 2 |x ? [E (Y |x)]2 8. TRUE An estimator, W , of ? is an unbiased estimator if E (W ) = ? for all possible values of ?. 9. FALSE The central limit theorem states that the average from a random sample for any population (with ? nite variance) when it is standardized, by subtracting the mean and then dividing by the standard deviation, has an asymptotic standard normal distribution. 10. TRUE The law of large numbers states that if X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn are independent, identically distributed random variables with mean  µ, then ? plim Xn =  µ 2 Multiple Choice Questions (a) ceteris paribus (b) correlation (c) causal e? ect (d) independence (20 points) 11. The idea of holding â€Å"all else equal† is known as 12. If our dataset has one observation for every state for the year 2000, then our dataset is (a) cross-sectional data (b) pooled cross-sectional data (c) time series data (d) panel data 13. If our dataset has one observation for every state for the year 2000 and another observation for each state in 2005, then our dataset is (a) cross-sectional data (b) pooled cross-sectional data (c) time series data (d) panel data 14. If our dataset has one observation for the state of Indiana each year from 1950-2005 then our dataset is (a) cross-sectional data (b) pooled cross-sectional data (c) time series data (d) panel data 15. Consider the function f (X, Y ) = (aX + bY )2 . What is (a) 2aX (b) a(aX + bY ) (c) 2a(aX + bY ) (d) a2 X ? f (X,Y ) ? X 3 Long Answer Questions (50 points) 16. The sum of squared deviations (subtracting the average value of x from each observation on x) is the sum of the squared xi minus n times the square of x. There are ? several ways to show this, here is one: n n xi (xi ? x) ? i=1 = i=1 n (xi ? x + x) (xi ? x) ? ? ? n = i=1 n (xi ? x) (xi ? x) + ? ? i=1 n x (xi ? x) ? ? = i=1 (xi ? x)2 + x ? ? i=1 n (xi ? x) ? (xi ? x) = 0, so ? and we know that i=1 n i=1 (xi ? x)2 ? 17. There are several ways to show that this expression equals the sample covariance between x and y, here is one: n n xi (yi ? y ) ? i=1 = i=1 n (xi ? x + x) (yi ? y ) ? ? ? n = i=1 n (xi ? x) (yi ? y ) + x ? ? ? i=1 (yi ? y ) ? = i=1 (xi ? x) (yi ? y ) ? ? 18. Correlation and causation are not always the same thing. (a) A negative correlation means that larger class size is associated with lower test performance. This could be because the relationship is causal meaning that having a larger class size actually hurts student performance. However, there are other reasons we might ? nd a negative relationship. For example, children from more a? uent families might be more likely to attend schools with smaller class sizes, and a? uent children generally score better on standardized tests. Another possibility is that within a school, a principal might assign the better students to smaller classes. Or, some parents might insist that their children are in the smaller classes, and these same parents tend to be more involved in their children’s education. Given the potential for confounding factors such as these, ? ding a negative correlation between class size and test scores is not strong evidence that smaller 4 class sizes actually lead to better performance. Thus, without other information, we cannot draw a meaningful economic conclusions. A correct answer should explain that we should be careful about drawing economic conclusions from simple correlations. (b) The sample correlation between N and T is de? ned as: s rN T = N T sN sT where the sample covariance, sN T , is given by: sN T = 1 999 1000 ? Ni ? N i=1 ? Ti ? T and the sample standard deviations are given by: sN = 1 999 1000 Ni ? N i=1 2 sT = 1 999 1000 ? Ti ? T i=1 2 Note that there are several alternative ways to write this and statistical programs generally use other algorithms to calculate the correlation that are less prone to loss of precision due to roundo? error or storage over? ow. 19. Wage data (a) There are 526 observations. (b) There are 274 men in the sample. This means that the sample is 52. 09 percent male. (c) The average level of education in the sample is 12. 6 years. The median level of education is 12 years. (d) The highest education level in the sample is 18 years of school. 9 people in the sample report having 18 years of education. (e) The average hourly wage in the sample is $5. 90. The median hourly wage in the sample is $4. 65. 20. Fertility data (a) There are 363 women in the sample. (b) The average number of children ever born to a woman in the sample is 2. 3. The median number is 2. (c) The largest number of children ever born to a woman in the sample 7. Six women report having seven children. (d) 25 percent of the sample lived in the eastern United States at age 16. (e) The average level of eduction in the sample is 13. 2 years. 5 How to cite Answer Key, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Influence Of Culture In The Business †Free Samples for Students

Question: Discuss About The Influence Of Culture In The Business? Answer: Introducation The influence of culture in the business of a particular country is prevalent. Business organizations or house need to follow the cultural norms of the contemporary community they are serving. Organizations or individuals, trying to expand their business in a different culture must understand the concept of cross culture management to give their management strategies a generalized as well as subjective dimension as per requirement of the concerned culture, they are willing to work (Thomas and Peterson, 2017, p.11). According to the case of the assessment project, Emily is an Australian entrepreneur working in the field of food. She owns a shop namely, 'The Aromatic Condiment Shop' and small factory in Perth. Her condiments are made of purely organic ingredients and are also free from harmful preservatives. Emily wishes to expand her business to Japan, as she thinks that her products will do good business in Japan. She is planning to planning to introduce items like, chilli sauces, pa stes, chutneys and jams to serve the needs of the Japanese community. Food is an important component of respective culture in the society, which evinces the nature of the culture and choices of the community people (Tjosvold, 2017, p.24). Emily understands that she should a person directly connected with business environment of Japan. Mr. Hamasaki is a fifty year old single man who works as a manager of a popular store in Japan. Emily is about to come to meet Mr. Hamasaki in person in order to gather information about Japanese business etiquette and Japanese market. This essay will concentrate on the relevant areas Emily needs to focus before conducting meeting with Mr. Hamasaki. Hofstede's 5 Cultural dimensions-Australia Vs Japan: According to Hofstede, cultural patterns of different nations can be accessed on the basis of five dimensions. Emily needs to study Hofstede's 5 Cultural dimensions for Japan in order to prepare herself for the meeting with Mr. Hamasaki of Japan. Power Distance: Power distance explains the way in which social inequalities are addressed in a society. Japan can be termed as a society with borderline hierarchy. It scored 54 in the power dimension of the country (Degens et al. 2017, p.37). Foreign business organizations found it most hierarchical as they had experienced slow decision making process in the business environment of Japan. Paradoxically, the slow decision making process of Japan indicates that in Japan, power of decision making is not concentrated within limited hands. Again according to the education system of Japan everyone is equal and they can achieve anything if they work hard. Figure 1: Hofstede's 5 Cultural dimensions for Japan Source: https://www.alinablaga.com/cultural-dimensions-theory-geert-hofstede-japanese-culture/ In comparison to Japan, Australia maintains lower hierarchical in their business environment (Beugelsdijk et al. 2017, p.30). The concept of hierarchy is practiced in Australia to provide transparent services to community people. Senior managers always rely on the performances of junior employee in the business environment of Australia. Business environment of Australia is far more soothing than Japan. Uncertainty Avoidance: Uncertainty avoidance index of Japan is 92. It indicates the fact that Japan always has plans for their future happenings (Serenko et al. 2017, p.41). This is so because Japanese community has to face the severe consequences caused by constant threats of natural disasters like, earthquake, tsunamis etc. So the Japanese business environment is quite predictive in nature. Business organizations there are used prepare themselves for future uncertainties in order to avoid bigger consequences of loss in the business. Whereas, in comparison to the Japanese business industry, Australian business environment is less concerned about the future of the business. Australian uncertainty avoidance index shows a moderate figure of 51. Figure 2: Hofstede's 5 Cultural dimensions- Australia Vs Japan Source: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/data-protection-hofstedes-cultural-dimensions-joe-hughes-cissp Individualism Vs Collectivism: In this dimension, the interdependency pattern of the respective society has been shown. Japan scores 46, which shows that business environment of Japan maintains the concept of interdependency (Degens et al. 2017, p.37). They act more reserved than the other Asian countries in the world. While talking about the individualism index of Australia (90), it can be said they more independent in nature. They are self sufficient and are likely to introduce independent business strategies and ideas in their business. Masculinity Vs Femininity: Higher masculine index of the Japan (95) shows that they competition, profit and success in thier business environment. Japan is considered one of the most masculine society in the world (Serenko et al. 2017, p.41). Attempting to be the best and move above the crowd are the concepts that are always get admiration in the business environment of Japan. The business organizations of Japan tries to motivate their employees in order to earn better profit than others. Success in terms of material production is significant in the business environment of Japan. On the other hand, Australia scores 61 in their Masculinity Vs Femininity dimension index. Australian business environment is more feminine in nature (Beugelsdijk et al. 2017, p.30). Australian society prefers quality of life rather than success in the materialistic production of the society. Australians chooses their professions on the basis of their liking over monetary preferences. Long Term Vs Short Term Orientation: Higher long term orientation index of Japan (88) evinces that business organizations of Japan maintains pragmatic approaches in their business strategies. They prefer to a steady growth in their business rather than periodical profit. It is seen that Japanese used to invest a big amount in their research and development projects even in the critical financial business environment (Degens et al. 2017, p.37). Their purpose is work for sustainable development of the society at large. On the other hand, Australia scores 21 in this index. Australian business organization maintains normative culture in their business environment. They focus more on present than on future. Japanese Business Etiquette: Choices and preferences of the community vary according to the culture of the community. And business organizations have their purposes to follow the choices and preferences of certain groups and community in order to reach the optimum satisfaction level of the group or community. Value of Silence: Japanese value silence in the initial stage of business (Hastings and Castle Bell, 2017, p.1). They link silence with credibility. According to them, the person or business partner who talks much, works little. Group Solidarity: Japanese business culture gives value to group solidarity over individualism. They prefer to work and move together in business and in other activities of life. Value of Business Cards: Japanese value their business cards. Japanese maintain engrained set of etiquettes while dealing with their business cards. They accept the cards by using both hands and handled it care and honour (Takeda et al. 2017, p.179). Placing their business cards in pocket or wallet is considered to be a blunder of etiquette to the Japanese. Value Seniority: Japanese CEOs are generally older than the CEOs of other countries in the world. They used to greet older person before the younger ones in the society. They respect age and seniority. Gentle approach in sell: Japanese follow the gentle approach in the marketing and delivery of their products and services. They prefer to build trust over profit in the business environment. Value of Privacy: Japanese people choose privacy in their life, business decisions and culture. They spent lesser amount of time in social networking sites. Gift Etiquette: In Japan, there is an importance of business gift in the industry. But, one must understand the gift etiquette of Japan before buying gifts for Japanese (Cook and Burdelski, 2017, p.461). As an example, white flowers are used to serve funeral purposes in Japan, so, it should be avoided. Sophisticated table manners: Japanese follow sophisticated table manners. They want others to value their table manners. Value of Small Stuff: Japanese value small and minute details in their life and business environment. One must show sensibility while dealing with the Japanese business environment. For example, one should not blow their nose in public; it is considered as poor sense of taste. Conservative and Unofficial dress code: Japanese value sophisticated dressing in their business environment as well as in their life. Men used to wear conservative suits and women are encouraged to carry minimum jewelleries. Suggestions For Emily: In this essay, several details associated with the business environment of Japan are discussed and explained. On the basis of this assessment report, recommendations for Emily can be developed. Emily should choose her dresses properly for her business meeting with Mr. Hamasaki. She should carry minimum jewellery and avoid to wear low heals in the meeting. She must greet senior and aged members of the community. She should show respect for the Japanese table manners. She should consider to follow minute details while dealing Japanese business managers, like, she should remove her shoes before entering into a Japanese house. She should select business gifts for Mr. Hamasaki cautiously. She may take a language translator with her. She must consider the contents of Hofstede's 5 Cultural dimensions for Japan while dealing with Japanese business managers. She should be to display her knowledge in the concerned field. Her business approach should be bold and polite. Her business strategies should be beneficial for the sustainable development of Japanese community. Reference Lists: Beugelsdijk, S., Kostova, T. and Roth, K., 2017. An overview of Hofstede-inspired country-level culture research in international business since 2006.Journal of International Business Studies,48(1), pp.30-47. Cook, H.M. and Burdelski, M., 2017. (Im) politeness: Language Socialization. InThe Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im) politeness(pp. 461-488). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Degens, N., Endrass, B., Hofstede, G.J., Beulens, A. and Andr, E., 2017. What I see is not what you get: why culture-specific behaviours for virtual characters should be user-tested across cultures.AI society,32(1), pp.37-49. Gelfand, M.J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M. and Leung, K., 2017. Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey.Journal of Applied Psychology,102(3), p.514. Hastings, S.O. and Castle Bell, G., 2017. Facing our Heuristic Limits: Expanding the Terminology for Types of Positive Face.Communication Quarterly, pp.1-15. https://www.alinablaga.com/cultural-dimensions-theory-geert-hofstede-japanese-culture/ https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/data-protection-hofstedes-cultural-dimensions-joe-hughes-cissp Serenko, A., Sato, O., Palvia, P.C., Turan, A.H. and Sasaki, H., 2017. The Effect of Work-Home Conflict on IT Employees in Japan: The Moderating Role of Conscientiousness. Takeda, T., Kida, N. and Hara, T., 2017, July. Appropriateness and Impression Evaluation of Japanese Seated Bow. InInternational Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management(pp. 179-187). Springer, Cham. Thomas, D.C. and Peterson, M.F., 2017.Cross-cultural management: Essential concepts. Sage Publications. Tjosvold, D., 2017.Cross-cultural management: foundations and future. Routledge.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Staffing for Global Operations free essay sample

In 21st century, we are seeing a big leap in the globalization of business and with this, the ability of management of an organization to work effectively across the cultural and national borders is playing a critical role in business success. Staffing management of multinational companies is a complex issue to the international human resource management (IHRM). With this stated, the statement, â€Å"Culture is a major variable for international management† is true in every sense.Keywords: expatriate, ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, geocentric ? Introduction Culture generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of â€Å"culture† reflect different theoretical orientations for understanding or criteria for valuing human activity. It refers to an ideal of individual human refinement, of the best that has been thought and said in the world (Wikipedia. org). In management, culture has a slightly different meaning.It can be explained as a set of policies, values, beliefs, and attitudes learnt and shared by the organizations member (Naylor, 2004). We will write a custom essay sample on Staffing for Global Operations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For this project, I will evaluate at how different kinds of management cultures in managing subsidiaries, which are located all over the world, can influence the development and growth of an organization in the modern era of globalization. International Business In the past, when people talked about international business, it only means that they exported their products to other countries.Nowadays, because of the development of free trade, any countries reduce their trade barriers in order to attract foreign companies in, to invest to and drive their domestic economy. Whenever people think about international business, it is no longer only trading from one place to another – they are thinking in terms of globalization. This means not only having investments, offices and businesses in their own country, but having similarly offices in different parts of the world as well (Citehr. com). In today’s global world, most big companies have their offices or business in many di fferent countries. Multinational enterprises often have their headquarters at their home countries and all their other offices, which may include offices in the same country but not at the headquarters and those located in other countries, need to report to them on a regular basis. Because culture is so different from one person to another and from one country to another, when an organization decides to open an office in a foreign country, they need to decide how they are going to manage their employees in the foreign country.Professionals sent a by their companies to work abroad and has been working and living in a foreign country is called an â€Å"expatriate† (Wikipedia. org). Company managers need to consider what kind of policies they should use within their subsidiaries. There are four main types of staffing for global operations: Ethnocentric, Polycentric, Regiocentric, and Geocentric approach. Ethnocentric Approach The definition of ethnocentric is â€Å"characterized by or based on the attitude that one’s own group is superior†(Merriam-webster. com, n. d. . Companies following the ethnocentric approach assume the home country approach is best and that employees from other parts of the world can and should follow its policies.Local companies may think that parent companies do not trust them and this may disincentive effect on local management morale and motivations. High costs, parent companies need to pay travel, residential, salaries, and other such expenses for expatriate employees and in most cases, the salaries for expatriate employees are much higher than salary for someone local. After assignments, normally a long-term oversea assignment is several years. The corporations need to have necessary arrangements on where the expatriates will go, and what they will do when they finish their assignments.Expatriate may not be able to adapt back to their original culture as they were away for too long (citehr. com). Polycentric Approach Polycentric staffing is an international staffing method in which multinational corporations treat each subsidiary as a separate national entity with some individual decision-making authority and hire host-country nationals as managers. This approach can minimize the dangers of cultural myopia, but it can create a gap between home and host-country operations (uslegal. com). Corporations use people from the countries in which their subsidiaries are located to fill management roles. General decisions and policies are made by local subsidiaries, which are suitable for their local environments and cultures to help them to achieve their parent company’s goals. Core strategic and functional capacities planning remain at headquarters (Marcbowles. com) Advantages of polycentric approach are low cost all the positions are recruited from the country where the subsidiaries are located. Organizations do not have to pay for travelling and accommodation expenses for the expatriate and his/her family. Increase acceptance. Government and people widely accept organizations that are willing to employ from their culture.They recognize this type of organization as legitimate participants in the local economy. It also demonstrates the business trust in the local population. Harmony, because all employees are also from the same country, they have similar culture which can reduce conflicts among the work force (Wikipedia. org) Disadvantages of polycentric approach are: Reduce of control of parent company, in this type of staffing, control exercise by headquarters may be reduce. This could make it difficult to balance local demands and global priorities.Different standards, each subsidiary have their own policies, which suit their cultures, but the standards will be different from one to another. This may lead to difficulties in achieving the organizations international goals. Short of communication. Communication between headquarters and subsidiaries is mainly just reporting. Headquarters may not know what is actually happening within the subsidiaries. This may lead to the postponement of difficult local decisions or problems as the local branches would try to solve it by themselves unless it is unavoidable (Wikipedia. rg) Regiocentric Approach Regiocentric approach is a philosophy of management whereby the firm tries to blend its own interests with those of its subsidiaries on a regional basis (College of Business Administration, 2007). A multinational corporation who has a regiocentric approach will divide parts of the world into regions. For example, a multinational company may divide Europe into different regions – Eastern Europe and Western Europe. Each corporation may have different definitions of the size of region, and which countries are in specific region. A company who adopts this approach selects suitable management level personnel within the region where the subsidiary is located. The regiocentric approach can be seen a development from ethnocentric or polycentric approach. It is similar to geocentric approach, but is limited to within different regions instead of the whole world. A regiocentric manager can be said to have a worldview on a regional scale, which could mean that the world outside the region in question might be viewed with an ethnocentric or polycentric orientation, or maybe a combination of two (marcbowles. om). Advantages of Regiocentric approach are effective; staff from the region where the subsidiaries operate will be more sensitive to regional needs. In general, people from the region will more in touch with the needs and concerns of the region and can make more suitable decisions based on this. These needs and concerns can also be communicated more effectively back to the company headquarters. Free movement, potentially, there are fewer difficulties in acquiring visas and work permits for staff moving from one part of the region to another.This will depend on the size of the region and the laws governing movement of people from one part of the region to another. Subsidiaries operating in Europe as a region should find it easy to relocate their expatriates from one part of the region to another without having to acquire work permits or Visas (ihrm. com). Some drawbacks of Regiocentric approach includes high cost, adaptability, social problems, and after assignments. Like in the case of ethnocentric approach, there is a high relocation, travel, and accommodation expenses incurred as staff are moved from one part of the region to another. Adaptability, managers who located within the region still encounters some difficulties adapting to the way of living in a different country within the region. For instance, people from Spain normally are more laid back, the pace of living and work is slower. They may find difficulties in working in fast-pace London. Social problems even though the expatriate employee(s) is not as far from home as those with ethnocentric or geocentric business, they still have to worry about how to bring their families with them or how to deal with being away from them.After assignments, as with the ethnocentric approach, the multinationals need to decide what they are going to do with the expatriates, whether or not they will have their original jobs back, and how well they can adapt to their home country after being away for a while (ihrm. com). Geocentric Approach A geocentric staffing policy seeks the best people for key jobs throughout the organization, regardless of their nationality. This approach is consistent with building a strong unifying culture and informal management network and is well suited to both global and transnational strategies.Immigration policies of national governments may limit a firms ability to pursue this policy (mhhe. com). Organizations that approach geocentric are focusing on commonalities across markets that allows corporations to take advantage of economies of scale in ways that polycentric corporations with decentralized operations cannot. Advantages of Geocentric approach are having the best employees, partnership relationship with parent companies and subsidiaries, and help in globalization. Best employees. Most of the employees that had been chosen are the most suitable person for the job. They have the knowledge and experience for the area in which they are recruited. Partnership relationship. The relationship between the parent companies and their subsidiaries are in partnership form. They are interdependent on each other. This kind of relationship is of more value due to each other’s presence. Help in globalization. Organizations recruit people from all over the world, which can help them to develop their business worldwide. Personnel are from every part of the world; their different cultures can help organization to achieve their goal and their local objectives (Wikipedia. rg) Just like the other approaches geocentric approach also have its own drawback, which includes, high cost and social problems. The regiocentric approach allows interaction between managers of an organization’s subsidiaries transferred to their organization’s regional headquarters. Managers have more sensitivity to local conditions as locals mostly staff the subsidiaries. It works in a similar way as the polycentric approach but towards a geocentric direction. The geocentric approach develops practices for worldwide use, which could be seen as seeing the global workforce as a whole. (ihrm. com) Which approach is the best? From the findings I got, there is no one best method.Organizations need to understand their aims and goals in order to decide which approach is the most suitable for their business. An organizations strategy on globalization strongly influences the approach it takes to management. It involves looking out and seeking competitive edge over other organizations by emphasizing and providing training for gaining insightful understanding of their global markets across different cultures and hence mobilizing the motivation triggers of their staff.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Islamophobia And The Media Example

Islamophobia And The Media Example Islamophobia And The Media – Coursework Example Islamophobia and the media Islamophobia and the Media Islamophobia is the intense dislike for Muslims and teachings of Islam. In this era of Islam extremist attacks linked to terrorism, Islamophobia is increasingly on the rise. A vast group of disillusioned people is airing negative views about Islam. Such activities, which portray negative concepts about Muslims, increase Islamophobia (Mediasmarts.ca, 2015). Many sections of the mainstream media air their anti-Islamic opinions. Several newspaper article writers focus on negative concepts about Islam such as the ISIS, Al Shabaab, and Al Qaeda (Jablonski, 2015). The media often dwell much on the link between Islam and its extreme members (Alexander, & Moore, 2015). The media place less emphasis on the positive contribution to society that Islam has given. Many newspapers release publications about terrorism and terrorist activities, as well as other negative aspects of Islam in the society.A number of Western news reporters often repo rt about terror activities carried by the extreme elements in Islam (Guardian, 2005). Although there is no official validation of belief in Jihad by Muslims, the media already created an image portraying Islam as a religion, which is not tolerant. Such reporting intends to make the non-Muslim audience develop a dislike for this section of the society. Many features of the television focus on extremism in Islam and the adverse effects of these activities (Global Research, 2015). Magazines and journals also release features portraying a bad image of Islam (Snyder, 2015). Such occurrences tend to mislead the public into Islamophobic tendencies because they brainwash people into fearing all Muslims in general. These sections of the media unknowingly or knowingly portray negative ideologies concerning Islam and dent its image in the eyes of the already skeptical populace. ReferencesAlexander, R., & Moore, H. (2015). Are most victims of terrorism Muslim? Retrieved May 12, 2015, from bbc.c om/news/magazine-30883058Global Research. (2015). Islamophobia and the "Negative Media Portrayal of Muslims". Retrieved 9 May 2015, from globalresearch.ca/islamophobia-and-the-negative-media-portrayal-of-muslims/5440451Guardian. (2005). Media has an anti-Muslim bias, claims report. Retrieved from theguardian.com/media/2005/nov/14/pressandpublishing.raceintheukJablonski, R. (2015). Terror attack at Dallas anti-Islam event raises concerns of future ISIS attacks against U.S. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from cleveland.com/nation/index.ssf/2015/05/terror_attack_at_dallas_anti-i.htmlMediasmarts.ca. (2015). Media Portrayals of Religion: Islam/MediaSmarts. Retrieved 9 May 2015, from http://mediasmarts.ca/diversity-media/religion/media-portrayals-religion-islamSnyder, R. (2015). Islamic graffiti in Scurry County targeted against Lubbock. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://kfyo.com/are-islamic-terrorists-making-their-way-through-texas-graffiti-in-scurry-county-targeted-against-lubbock/

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Implementing Technology Tools and Sites in the Curriculum Assignment

Implementing Technology Tools and Sites in the Curriculum - Assignment Example This study discusses that the contemporary society is defined by development in all facets of life including the economic, social, and technological fronts. Such development ought to be integrated into the learning environment as the children are being prepared for the real life experiences. Technological advancements have created various avenues through which the learning experience can be made more easy, understandable, and enjoyable to the student as it has been made easier for the educators to disburse information and interact with the individuals at individualized levels through student-centered approaches. Various tools provided by technology can be employed both within and outside the classroom to enhance student learning and promote interactive approaches to learning. When employing such technologies, it is important for the teachers to be well aware of the National Education Technology Standards for Teachers and the need to implement the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) e lements. This paper involves the application of the Kahoot, FunBrain, and Wikispaces technology tools in the classroom to facilitate student learning.This paper highlights that  Kahoot forms one of the effective interactive tools that can be employed in the classroom environment to achieve increased understanding among the students and facilitate increased student engagement in the learning process.